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However, an unintended consequence is the potential for fugitive emissions during patient treatment, which may pose a risk factor in both clinical and homecare settings. Methods: The current study examined the potential for fugitive emissions, using albuterol sulphate as a tracer aerosol during high-flow therapy.

A nasal cannula was connected to a head model or alternatively, a interface was connected to a tracheostomy tube in combination with a simulated adult and paediatric breathing profile. Two aerodynamic particle sizers APS recorded time-series aerosol concentrations and size distributions at two different distances relative to the simulated patient. Results: The results showed that the quantity and characteristics of the fugitive emissions were influenced by the interface type, patient type and supplemental gas-flow rate.

There was a trend in the adult scenarios; as the flow rate increased, the fugitive emissions and the mass median aerodynamic diameter MMAD of the aerosol both decreased. The fugitive emissions were comparable when using the adult breathing profiles for the nasal cannula and tracheostomy interfaces; however, there was a noticeable distinction between the two interfaces when compared for the paediatric breathing profiles. The highest recorded aerosol concentration was 0. The averaged MMAD across all combinations ranged from 1.

Conclusions: Overall, the results highlight the potential for secondary inhalation of fugitive emissions released during simulated aerosol treatment with concurrent high-flow therapy. The findings will help in developing policy and best practice for risk mitigation from fugitive emissions.


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Abstract Background: There has been considerable interest in the use of antimicrobial peptides AMPs as antimicrobial therapeutics in many conditions including cystic fibrosis CF. Background: There has been considerable interest in the use of antimicrobial peptides AMPs as antimicrobial therapeutics in many conditions including cystic fibrosis CF. Methods: Physical characteristics of the peptides AMP and pro-AMP and antimicrobial activity were compared before and after nebulisation. Droplet size distribution was determined by laser diffraction and cascade impaction.

Delivery to a model lung was determined in models of spontaneously-breathing and mechanically-ventilated patients. Results: The physical characteristics and antimicrobial activities were unchanged after nebulisation.


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Conclusions: These results demonstrate that the delivery of pro- AMPs to the lung using a VMN is feasible and that the prodrug modification is not detrimental. Included are stages 1 to 7, the micro-orifice collector MOC , the connector, throat, and filter stages, as well as the remaining peptide in the nebuliser. Each increasing stage number of the impactor has a smaller cut-off diameter, with MOC being the smallest.

The figures were used to calculate MMAD. Note: flow direction indicated by arrows. Frijlink and Floris Grasmeijer. Abstract Tuberculosis is a major health problem and remains one of the main causes of mortality. In recent years, there has been an increased interest in the pulmonary delivery of antibiotics to treat tuberculosis. Isoniazid is one of these antibiotics. In this study, we [ Tuberculosis is a major health problem and remains one of the main causes of mortality.

Isoniazid was jet milled and spray dried with and without the excipient l -leucine. Milling isoniazid with and without excipients did not result in a suitable formulation, as it resulted in a low and highly variable fine particle fraction. Spray drying pure isoniazid resulted in particles too large for pulmonary administration. However, storage stability was poor at higher relative humidity, which likely results from dissolution-crystallization.

Therefore, follow up research is needed to further optimize this spray dried formulation. Magnification: 2. The solid line is the first heating, the short dashed line is quench cooling, and the long dashed line second heating. Exo is up. B2 batch. Note the arrows pointing at the two areas where blockages occurred. Each sample was spray dried twice and each laser diffraction measurement was performed three times. Abstract Trans-nasal aerosol deposition during distressed breathing is higher than quiet breathing, and decreases as administered gas flow increases.

We hypothesize that inhaled dose is related to the ratio of gas flow to patient inspiratory flow GF:IF. An adult manikin Laerdal with a collecting [ Trans-nasal aerosol deposition during distressed breathing is higher than quiet breathing, and decreases as administered gas flow increases. An adult manikin Laerdal with a collecting filter placed at trachea was connected to a dual-chamber model lung, which was driven by a ventilator to simulate quiet and distressed breathing with different inspiratory flows.

Albuterol 2. Drug was eluted from the filter and assayed with UV spectrophotometry nm. During trans-nasal aerosol delivery, GF:IF primarily affected the inhaled dose. Compared to the ratio above 1. Abstract Purpose: This study describes the development and characterization of glucagon dry powder inhaler DPI formulation for pulmonary delivery. Lactose monohydrate, as a carrier, and L-leucine and magnesium stearate MgSt were used as dispersibility enhancers for this formulation.

Purpose: This study describes the development and characterization of glucagon dry powder inhaler DPI formulation for pulmonary delivery. The fine particle fractions FPFs of glucagon in different formulations were determined by a twin stage impinger TSI using a 2. Results: The FPF of the glucagon was 6. The FTIR, Raman, and DSC data showed remarkable physical interactions of glucagon with leucine and a minor interaction with lactose; however, there were no interactions with MgSt alone or mixed with lactose.

Conclusion: Due to the interaction between L-leucine and glucagon, leucine was not a suitable excipient for glucagon formulation. In contrast, the use of lactose and MgSt could be considered to prepare an efficient DPI formulation for the pulmonary delivery of glucagon. All excipients glucagon and leucine adhered to the surface of large carrier lactose.

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Abstract Tuberculosis resistant cases have been estimated to grow every year. Besides Mycobacterium tuberculosis , other mycobacterial species are responsible for an increasing number of difficult-to-treat infections. To increase efficacy of pulmonary treatment of mycobacterial infections an inhalable antibiotic powder targeting infected alveolar macrophages [ Tuberculosis resistant cases have been estimated to grow every year. To increase efficacy of pulmonary treatment of mycobacterial infections an inhalable antibiotic powder targeting infected alveolar macrophages AMs and including an efflux pump inhibitor was developed.

These particles were able to regenerate their original size upon contact with aqueous environment with mechanical stirring or sonication. The in vitro drugs release profile from the powder was characterized by a slow release rate, favorable to maintain a high drug level inside AMs.

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In vitro antimicrobial activity and ex vivo macrophage infection assays employing susceptible and drug resistant strains were carried out. No significant differences were observed when the powder, which did not compromise the AMs viability after a five-day exposure, was compared to the same formulation without verapamil. This approach can be considered appropriate to treat mycobacterial respiratory infections, regardless the level of drug resistance.

Powder A NPs —rifampicin Abstract Medical aerosols are key elements of current chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD therapy. Therapeutic effects are conditioned by the delivery of the right amount of medication to the right place within the airways, that is, to the drug receptors. Deposition of the inhaled [ Medical aerosols are key elements of current chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD therapy. For this purpose, a stochastic airway deposition model has been applied. Our results revealed that the amount of drug depositing within the lungs correlated with the degree of disease severity.

This implies that for the same inhaler dosage severe COPD patients receive a significantly lower lung dose, although, they would need more. Q—inhalation flow rate. The lung dose is expressed as a percent of the dose metered in the device. BUD—budesonide; FF—formoterol fumarate dihydrate.

Abstract Background: Secondary inhalation of medical aerosols is a significant occupational hazard in both clinical and homecare settings. The motive behind present work was to discover a solution for overcoming the problems allied with a deprived oral bioavailability of salbutamol sulfate SS due to its first pass hepatic metabolism, shorter half-life, and systemic toxicity at high doses.

Pulmonary delivery provides an alternative route of administration to avoid hepatic metabolism of SS, moreover facilitated diffusion and prolonged retention can be achieved by incorporation into liposomes. Liposomes were prepared by thin film hydration technique using 3 2 full factorial design and formulation was optimized based on the vesicle size and percent drug entrapment PDE of liposomes. Optimized liposomal formulation exhibited an average size of about The liposomal dispersion was then spray dried and further characterized for in-vitro aerosol performance using Andersen Cascade Impactor.

Thus, the proposed new-fangled liposomal formulation would be a propitious alternative to conventional therapy for efficient and methodical treatment of asthma and alike respiratory ailments. The authors are thankful to Bharati Vidyapeeth's Poona College of Pharmacy, Pune, India, for availing facility for in-vitro aerosol performance study. No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors. Skip to Main Content. Search in: This Journal Anywhere. Advanced search.

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